ANF :: Drug Information
DRUG INFORMATION
Opium

Papaver somniferum var. album, is the species of plant from which opium and poppy seeds are extracted. Opium is the source of many opiates, including morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine. The plant itself is also valuable for ornamental purposes, and has been known as the "common garden poppy", referencing all the group of poppy plants.

Derivatives of Opium
i) Morphine:

Morphine is an extremely potent opiate analgesic psychoactive drug, is the principal active ingredient in Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, or simply opium), is considered to be the prototypical opioid. In clinical medicine, morphine is regarded as the gold standard, or benchmark, of analgesics used to relieve severe or agonizing pain and suffering.

ii) Heroin:

Heroin and Opium are derived from poppy plant. Heroin, or diacetylmorphine, also known as diamorphine, is a synthesized from morphine, a derivative of the opium poppy. Heroin is used as both a pain-killer and a recreational drug. Frequent and regular administration is associated with tolerance, moderate physical dependence, and severe psychological dependence.

Manufacturing

Heroin, also known as diacetyl morphine is produced from acetylation of morphine derived from natural opium sources. Numerous mechanical and chemical means are used to purify the final product.

Methods of Use

Heroin, also known as diacetyl morphine is produced from acetylation of morphine derived from natural opium sources. Numerous mechanical and chemical means are used to purify the final product.

a)
One of the most common methods of illicit heroin use is via intravenous injection.
b)
May administer the drug through snorting.
c)
Smoking by inhaling its vapors when heated; either with tobacco in a rolled cigarette or by heating the drug on aluminum foil from underneath.
Effects

Intravenous users typically experience the rush within 7 to 8 seconds after injection, while intramuscular injection produces a slower onset of this euphoric feeling, taking 5 to 8 minutes. When heroin is sniffed or smoked, the peak effects of the drug are usually felt within 10 to 15 minutes. In addition to the initial feeling of euphoria, the short-term effects of heroin include a warm flushing of the skin, dry mouth, and heavy extremities. Chronic users may develop collapsed veins, infection of the heart lining and valves, abscesses, cellulites, and liver disease. Pulmonary complications, including various types of pneumonia, may result from the poor health condition of the abuser, as well as from heroin's depressing effects on respiration.

Cannabis
Derivatives of Cannabis
i) Hashish

It is derived from female cannabis (Hemp/Bhang) plant. Hashish is a preparation of cannabis composed of the compressed stalked resin glands called trichomes, collected from the cannabis plant (Bhang). Hashish is often a solid or paste-like substance of varying hardness and pliability, and will soften under heat. Its color can vary from green, yellow, black, reddish brown, or most commonly light to dark brown.

Manufacturing

Hashish is made from cannabinoid-rich glandular hairs known as trichomes, as well as varying amounts of cannabis flower and leaf fragments. The flowers of a mature female plant contain the most trichomes, though trichomes are found on other parts of the plant. The resin reservoirs of the trichomes, sometimes erroneously called pollen are separated from the plant through various methods. The resulting powder is compressed into blocks of hashish aided by heat, which can be easily stored and transported.

ii) Marijuana

Marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug. A dry, shredded green/brown mix of flowers, stems, seeds, and leaves of the plant Cannabis sativa, it usually is smoked as a cigarette (joint, nail), or in a pipe (bong). It also is smoked in blunts, which are cigars that have been emptied of tobacco and refilled with marijuana, often in combination with another drug. It might also be mixed in food or brewed as a tea. As a more concentrated, resinous form it is called hashish and, as a sticky black liquid, hash oil. Marijuana smoke has a pungent and distinctive, usually sweet-and-sour odor.

Effects

When marijuana is smoked, its effects begin immediately after the drug enters the brain. Smoking marijuana deposits several times more THC into the blood than does eating or drinking the drug. Within a few minutes after inhaling marijuana smoke, an individual’s heart begins beating more rapidly, the bronchial passages relax and become enlarged, and blood vessels in the eyes expand, making the eyes look red. A marijuana user may experience pleasant sensations, colors and sounds may seem more intense, and time appears to pass very slowly. The user’s mouth feels dry, and he or she may suddenly become very hungry and thirsty. His or her hands may tremble and grow cold.



Coca Leaf
Derivatives of Coca Leaf
Cocaine

It is derived from Coca leaf. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant that directly affects the brain. Cocaine is not a new drug. and coca leaves, the source of cocaine, have been ingested for thousands of years. Pure cocaine was first extracted from the leaf of the Erythroxylon coca bush, which grows primarily in Peru and Bolivia, in the mid-19th century. The powdered, hydrochloride salt form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and injected. Crack is cocaine that has not been neutralized by an acid to make the hydrochloride salt. This form of cocaine comes in a rock crystal that can be heated and its vapors smoked. The term “crack” refers to the crackling sound heard when it is heated.

Effects

Cocaine is a powerfully addictive drug. Cocaine’s effects appear almost immediately after a single dose, and disappear within a few minutes or hours. Taken in small amounts (up to 100 mg), cocaine usually makes the user feel euphoric, energetic, talkative, and mentally alert, especially to the sensations of sight, sound, and touch. It can also temporarily decrease the need for food and sleep. Some users find that the drug helps them perform simple physical and intellectual tasks more quickly, while others experience the opposite effect.

Psychotropic Substances
Derivatives
Ecstasy (MDMA)

MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a synthetic, psychoactive drug chemically similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline. MDMA is an illegal drug that acts as both a stimulant and psychedelic, producing an energizing effect, as well as distortions in time and perception and enhanced enjoyment from tactile experiences. Adolescents and young adults use it to promote euphoria, feelings of closeness, empathy, sexuality and to reduce inhibitions. It is considered a "party drug" and obtained at "rave" or "techno" parties. Although MDMA is known universally among users as ecstasy, researchers have determined that many ecstasy tablets contain not only MDMA but also a number of other drugs or drug combinations.

Methamphetamine

Today, methamphetamine is second only to alcohol and marijuana as the drug used most frequently in many Western and Midwestern states. Seizures of dangerous laboratory materials have increased dramatically. Methamphetamine is a highly addictive drug with potent central nervous system stimulant properties. In the 1960s, methamphetamine pharmaceutical products were widely available and extensively diverted and abused.

Buprenorphine

Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic opiate with partial agonist actions at the antagonist actions at other opioid receptors. Buprenorphine hydrochloride was first marketed in the 1980s by Reckitt & Colman (now Reckitt Benckiser) as an analgesic, available generally as Temgesic 0.2 mg sublingual tablets, and as Buprenex in a 0.3 mg/ml injectable formulation. In October 2002, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States of America additionally approved Suboxone and Subutex, buprenorphine's high-dose sublingual pill preparations for opioid addiction, and as such the drug is now also used for this purpose.

Use

Buprenorphine is also used recreationally, typically by opioid users. Users sometimes report a feeling of general well being, perhaps even to the point that they may become more outgoing or talkative. Due to the high potency of tablet forms of buprenorphine, only a small amount of the drug need be ingested to achieve the desired effects. The buprenorphine preparation, Suboxone, comes in an orange lemon-lime flavored tablet for sublingual administration. The taste of Suboxone is described by some to be very unpleasant. Subutex is unflavored and very bitter.

Effects

Common adverse drug reactions associated with the use of buprenorphine are similar to those of other opioids and include: nausea and vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness, headache, itch and dry. The most severe and serious adverse reaction associated with opioid use in general is respiratory depression, the mechanism behind fatal overdose. Buprenorphine behaves differently than other opioids in this respect, as it shows a ceiling effect for respiratory depression.


Disclaimer
Library
IT
Quick Facts
Youth Forum
FAQs
Usefull Links
World Drug Day
Publications
Facebook
Twitter

326985

Copyright 2017 - Anti Narcotics Force Pakistan
Helpline: 1415